The Department seeks to deepen scholarly understanding of politics, international relations and strategic studies; our approach is inter-disciplinary with roots in history, philosophy and social science, both statistical and interpretive. We emphasise the rigorous interaction of epistemology and methodology, with developing techniques and methods, and the highest standards of scholarship, to produce research that has impact both academically and publicly. For that, we aim to contribute to various perspectives and produces a variety of publications which promote the research of both the staff and the student body, inform interested parties of current developments and trends within the discipline, and communicate with its constituents. While you may find individual publications through the UM Expert, you will find here some of the recent publications produced by the Department, as follows


Ravi Mahalingam and Jatswan S. Sidhu, "Inside the Crime of Sex Trafficking in Sabah, Malaysia," Journal of Human Trafficking, 2020, Vol. 6, 17
Sani, Safiyanu, Roy Anthony Rogers, Wan Sharina Ramlah (2020), Nigeria's Foreign Policy Goals in Peacekeeping Operation in Africa, Intellectual Discourse, Vol. 28, no. 1

Khoo Ying Hooi. (2020). People's participation, democratic governance, and the ASEAN Economic Community, In Heru Susetyo, Patricia Rinwigati Waagstein and Akhmad Budi Cahyono (eds.) Advancing Rule of Law in a Global Context, CRC Press. 

Khoo Ying Hooi. Regional Identity and Belonging: Timor-Leste and ASEAN. Suvannabhumi. 12(2). 119-140

Khoo Ying Hooi. 2020. Book Review on The Spectra of Authoritarianism in Southeast Asia. Journal of Human Rights and Peace Studies. 6(1). 157-60

Hema Selvanathan, Khoo Ying Hooi and Brian Lickel. The role of social movement leaders in building solidarity for social change: a case of the electoral reform movement in Malaysia. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2019; 50(1):224-238

Khoo Ying Hooi. 2020. Post-legislative scrutiny (PLS) in the process of democratic transition in Malaysia, in Journal of Southeast Asian Human Rights (forthcoming). 

Apresian, S. R., Tyson, A., Varkkey, H., Choiruzzad, S. A. B., Indraswari, R. (2020). Palm Oil Development in Riau, Indonesia: Balancing Economic Growth and Environmental Protection. Nusantara, 2 (1), 1-29 

Varkkey, H. and Copeland, A. (2020). Exchanging Health for Economic Growth?: Haze in the Context of Public Health and Political Economy in Malaysia. Journal of Social Health 3(1), 1-13 

Khan, M. F., Hamid, A. H., Ab Rahim, H. Abdul Maulud, K. N., Latif, M. T., Mohd Nadzir, M. S., Sahani, M. Qin, K.. Kumar, P., Varkkey, H., Faruque, M. R. I., Ng, C. G., Ahmadi, S. P., and Yusoff, S. (2020). El Niño driven haze over the Southern Malaysian Peninsula and Borneo. Science of the Total Environment, 730

Lupascu, M., Varkkey, H. & Tortajada, C.(2020). Is flooding considered a threat in the degraded tropical peatlands?. Science of the Total Environment


K S Balakrishnan (2019), Great Power Rivalry and Military Activities in the South China Sea, SAMUDERA-Journal of maritime and Coastal Studies, Vol 1 (1), September, 2019, 16-34

K S Balakrishnan (2019), Cyber Threats, Disruption and National Security Challenges: The Effects on Malaysia and ASEAN, in Mely Caballero and Margareth Sembiring (Eds.), Resilience in the Face of Disruptions, Singapore: Nanyang Technological University, pp 23-32.

Jorn Dosch and Jatswan S. Sidhu, "Negara Brunei Darussalam in 2018: Some Good News At Last,"Asian Survey, Vol. 59, No. 1, January/February 2019, pp. 204-208.

Roy Anthony Rogers, (2019), Diplomatic Ties Between Malaysia and the Holy See: A Symbol of Mutual Respect, Inter-Religious Coexistence and International Cooperation, Intellectual Discourse, 27:2, 643-664. 

Roy Anthony Rogers, (2019), The Mahathir influence and changing phases of Malaysia-Syria diplomatic relations, Journal of International Studies, Vol. 15, December 2019. 

Roy Anthony Rogers, Pervaiz Ali Mahesar, Ngeow Chow-Bing, Nexuses between knowledge and policy: China Studies in Pakistani think tanks, Jebat: Malaysian Journal of History, Politics & Strategic Studies, Vol. 46 (1), (July 2019): 196-224

Nurliana Kamaruddin, Roy Anthony Rogers, (2019), Malaysia’s democratic and political transformation,v Asian Affairs: An American Review, Vol. 46, 2019, 

Roy Anthony Rogers, (2019), Malaysian approach to regionalism:Comparisons of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN), In Azirah Hashim and Anthony Milner (eds.), Malaysian perspectives on ASEAN regionalism, (pp. 149-165), Kuala Lumpur : University of Malaya Press

Khoo Ying Hooi and Deasy Simandjuntak (Eds.). 2019. Exploring the Nexus Between Technologies and Human Rights: Opportunities and Challenges in Southeast Asia. SHAPE-SEA.

Denison Jayasooria and Khoo Ying Hooi (Eds.). 2019. Social Movements in Malaysia: A Vehicle for Citizen's Action. UKM Press.

Khoo Ying Hooi and Ayesah Abu Bakar (2019). Human Rights and Peace Education in Malaysia, in The Remapping and Analysis of Human Rights and Peace Education in ASEAN/ Southeast Asia. SHAPE-SEA. pp. 121-140. 

Khoo Ying Hooi (2019). Human Rights and Peace Education in Timor-Leste, in The Remapping and Analysis of Human Rights and Peace Education in ASEAN/ Southeast Asia. SHAPE-SEA. pp. 239-255.

Khoo Ying Hooi. 2019. Timor Leste in Human Rights Outlook in Southeast Asia 2018, SHAPE-SEA, pp. 155-168. 

Huong Yu Sin and Khoo Ying Hooi. 2019. Human Rights, State Sovereignty and Death Penalty: Indonesia's Diplomacy Approach on Bali Nine, Journal of International Studies. 

Khoo Ying Hooi and Tan Lii Inn. 2019. Localization the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Civil Society Organisations’ (CSOs) Strategies and Challenges in Malaysia, Asian Development Perspective. Volume 10 Number 2 December 2019. pp. 149-158. 

Samitra Parthiban and Khoo Ying Hooi. 2019. Detention of Refugee Children in Malaysia and Thailand: Are Alternatives to Detention (ATD) Workable. Journal of Southeast Asian Human Rights (JSEAHR). (forthcoming) 

Varkkey, H. & O'Reilly, P. (2019) Chapter 4: Socio-Political Responses Towards Transboundary Haze The Oil Palm in Malaysia’s Discourse, in Ed. S. Kukreja, "Southeast Asia and Environmental Sustainability in Context", Maryland;: Lexington Books 

Varkkey, H. (2019). Preventing Dispute over Haze Through Regional and Local Governance. In M. Oishi (Ed.), Managing Conflicts in a Globalising ASEAN. Singapore: Springer 

Varkkey, H. (2019) Transboundary Pollution. In S. Maisel (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies in Political Science. New York: Oxford University Press 

Varkkey, H. (2019). Transboundary Haze, ASEAN, and the SDGs: Normative and Structural Challenges. in R. Holzhacker & D. Agussalim (Eds.), Sustainable Development Goals in Southeast Asia and ASEAN: National and Regional Approaches. Leiden: Brill Publishing

Padfield R, Hansen S, Davies ZG, Ehrensperger A, Slade EM, Evers S, Papargyropoulou E, Bessou C, Abdullah N, Page S, Ancrenaz M, Aplin P, Dzulkafli SB, Barclay H, Chellaiah D, Choudhary S, Conway S, Cook S, Copeland A, Campos-Arceiz A, Deere NJ, Drew S, Gilvear D, Gray R, Haller T, Hood AS-C, Huat LK, Huynh N, Kangayatkarasu N, Koh LP, Kolandai SK, Lim RAH, Yeong KL, Lucey JM, Luke SH, Mitchell SL, Montefrio MJ, Mullin K, Nainar A, Nekaris K-I, Nijman V, Nunes M, Nurhidayu S, O’Reilly P, Puan CL, Ruppert N, Salim H, Schouten G, Tallontire A, Smith TEL, Tao H-H, Tham MH, Varkkey H, Wadey J, Yule CM, Azhar B, Sayok AK, Vairappan C, Bicknell JE and Struebig MJ (2019) Co-producing a Research Agenda for Sustainable Palm Oil. Front. For. Glob. Change 2:13.

Manzo, K, Padfield, R, and Varkkey, H. (2019), Envisioning Tropical Environments: Representations of Peatlands in Malaysian Media. Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space 

Thornton, S., Cook, S. Astiani, D., Hapsari, K., Varkkey, H. Cole, L. Dargie, G., Sjogersten, S., Zawawi, N., and Page, S. (2019). “Pushing the Limits”: Experiences of Women in Tropical Peatland Research. Marine and Freshwater Research 


Adam Tyson, Helena Varkkey, and Shofwan Al Banna Choiruzzad ‘Deconstructing the Palm Oil Industry Narrative in Indonesia: Evidence from Riau Province,’ Contemporary Southeast Asian, 2018, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 203-219.  

Helena Varkkey, Adam Tyson and Shofwan Al Banna Choiruzzad (2018). Palm Oil Intensification and Expansion in Indonesia and Malaysia: Environmental and Socio-Political Factors Influencing Policy. Forest Policy and Economics, Vol 92, July 2018, pp. 148–159 

Mohd Talib Latif, Murnira Othman, Nurfathehah Idris, Liew Juneng, Ahmad Makmom Abdullah, Wan Portia Hamzah, Md Firoz Khan, Nik Meriam Nik Sulaiman, Jegalakshmi Jewaratnam, Nasrin Aghamohammadi, Mazura Sahani, Chung Jing Xiang, Fatimah Ahamad, Norhaniza Amil, Mashitah Darus, Helena Varkkey, Fredolin Tangang, and Abu Bakar Jaafar (2018). Impact of Regional Haze towards Air Quality in Malaysia: A ReviewAtmospheric Environment, Vol. 117, pp.28-44.

Muhammad Danial Azman, Mashitah Hamidi, and Ong, Siew Kian. (2018). Accessibility and Utility of Library Resources in Research Methodology: A Case of Non-Science Students at the University of Malaya. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, Vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 93-111.

Michelle Tye, Carmen Leong, Felix Tan and Khoo Ying Hooi, (2018). Social Media for Empowerment in Social Movements: The Case of Malaysia’s Grassroots Activism. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 42, No. 15, pp. 408-430.

Rogers, Roy Anthony, (2018). The Radicalisation of Xinjiang: Its Roots and Impact on Human Rights. Contemporary Chinese Political Economy and Strategic Relations: An International Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 487-512. 

Roy Anthory Rogers, (2018). Xinjiang: The Human Rights Turbulence Persists (1978-2007). International Journal of Islamic thoughts, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 5-26. 

Helena Varkkey, (Ed). (2018). Local and Transboundary Haze.  Kuala Lumpur: Akademi Sains Malaysia, 2018.

Muhammad Danial Azman, and Geetha Govindasamy, (Eds.). (2018). Insights to East Asia: Bridging the Past and Present. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press.

Sani Safiyanu, Roy Anthony Rogers and Muhammad Danial Azman, (2018). ‘Peacekeeping Operations Challenges and Economic Impacts: A Nigeria’s Perspective’, in Pablo Antonio and Fernadez-Sanchez (Eds.) Peacekeeping Global Perspectives, Challenges and Impacts. New York: Nova Science Publisher, pp. 565-587. 

Geetha Govindasamy, and Muhammad Danial Azman, (2018). ‘East Asian Regionalism (EAR): Challenges for Supranational Cooperation’, in Muhammad Danial Azman and Geetha Govindasamy, (Eds.) Insight into East Asia: Bridging the Past and Present. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, pp. 1-18. 

Muhammad Danial Azman, and Geetha Govindasamy, (2018). ‘Inter-Korean Relations and the nuclear Issue: Hostility to a Possible Rapprochement’, in Muhammad Danial Azman and Geetha Govindasamy, (Eds.) Insight into East Asia: Bridging the Past and Present. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, pp. 57-74

Helena Varkkey, (2018). ‘Singapore’s Transboundary Pollution Act 2014: Prospects and Challenges’, in Euston Quah and Tsiat Siong Tan (Eds.) Pollution Across Borders: Transboundary Fires, Smoke and Haze in Southeast Asia, Singapore: World Scientific, pp. 319-325.

Helena Varkkey. (2018). ‘The "Crime" of Haze: Politics of Land, Nature and Human Rights’, in Ute Meta Bauer, & Anca Rujoiu (Eds.) Place.Labour.Capital: The Making of an Institution. Singapore: NTU CCA & Mousse Publishing 

Khoo Ying Hooi, (2018). ‘The NGO-Government Relations in Malaysia: Challenges and Opportunities’, in Raffaele Marchetti (Ed.). Cooperation and Competition between Government and NGOs: Perspectives from Asia, Europe, Middle East and Africa. London: Routledge, Cahpter 7.

Khoo Ying Hooi. (2018). ‘Malaysia and ASEAN Relations’, in Lam Choong Wah (Ed.). The Complete Book of Malaysian Politics and Economics: Defense and Foreign Policy. Centre for Malaysian Chinese Studies: Kuala Lumpur.

Khoo Ying Hooi and Asmadi Hassan. ‘The Impact of China's Foreign Aid to the Development in Timor Leste’, in Muhammad Danial Azman, and Geetha Govindasamy, (Eds.) Insight into East Asia: Bridging the Past and Present. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, pp. 19-33.

Asmadi Hassan and Khoo Ying Hooi. ‘Nippon Izokukai and the Controversial Visits of the Japanese Prime Minister to the Yasukuni Shrine’, in Muhammad Danial Azman, and Geetha Govindasamy, (Eds.) Insight into East Asia: Bridging the Past and Present. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, pp. 75-91.

Roy Anthony Rogers, and Ruqayya Aminu, (2018). ‘The Challenges of Defence Transformation and Implication for Democratic Governance in Nigeria’, in Usman Tar, (Ed.) Defence Transformation and the Consolidation of Democracy in Nigeria. Kaduna: Centre for Defence Studies and Documentation, National Defence Academy, pp. 393-416.

Roy Anthony Rogers, and Sani Safiyanu, (2018). ‘The Contribution of Peacekeeping in the Transformation of Nigeria's Defence Sector’, in Usman A Tar, (Ed.) Defence Transformation and the Consolidation of Democracy in Nigeria. Kaduna: Centre for Defence Studies and Documentation, Nigerian Defence Academy, pp. 417-444.

Roy Anthony Rogers, (2018). ‘Xinjiang: China's Growing Dilemma’, Asia Dialogue, April 25.

Khoo Ying Hooi, (2018). ‘Timor Leste's Personality Politics’, The Diplomat Magazine, February 28.


Roy Anthony Rogers, 
The Struggles for Human Rights in Xinjiang, Kuala Lumpur, The Other Press, 2017.

Roy Anthony Rogers and Nur Rafeeda Daut, China in the First World War: Its Forgotten Army in Search of International Recognition’Contemporary Chinese Political Economy and Strategic Relations: An International Journal, Vol. 3. No. 3, 2017.

Sani Safiyanu, Roy Anthony Rogers and Muhammad Danial Azman, ‘Peacekeeping Operations Challenges and Economic Impacts: A Nigeria’s Perspective’, in Pablo Antonio and Fernadez-Sanchez (Eds.) Peacekeeping Global Perspectives, Challenges and Impacts (forthcoming), New York: Nova Science Publisher, 2017.

K. S. Balakrishnan and Helena Varkkey, ‘Straits of Malacca: Malaysia’s Threat Perception and Strategy for Maritime Security’, in Suseela Malakolunthu and Nagappan C. Rengasamy (Eds.). Policy Discourse in Malaysian Education: A Nation in the Making, London: Routledge, 2017, pp. 15-28.

K. S. Balakrishnan, ‘Globalisation and Politics of Education in Malaysia: Some Past and Contemporary Policy Issues, in Nicholas Tarling and Xin Chen (Eds.). Maritime Security in East & Southeast Asia, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, pp. 23-42.

Helena Varkkey, Local and Transboundary Haze (fourthcoming), Kuala Lumpur: Akademi Sains Malaysia, 2017. 

Helena Varkkey, ‘Politics of Fires and Haze in Southeast Asia,’ in William R. Thompson (Ed).
 Oxford Research Encyclopaedia of Politics, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017. 

Stephanie Evers, Catherine M. Yule, Rory Padfield, Patrick O’Reilly and Helena Varkkey, ‘Malaysian in 2016: Persistent Crises, Rapid Response and Resilience,’ Southeast Asian Affairs, 2017, pp. 203-219. 

Stephanie Evers, Catherine M. Yule, Rory Padfield, Patrick O’Reilly and Helena Varkkey, ‘Keep Wetlands Wet: The Myth of Sustainable Development of Tropical Peatlands: Implications for Policies and ManagementGlobal Change Biology, vol. 23, No. 2, 2017, pp. 534-549.  

Jatswan S. Sidhu, Historical Dictionary of Brunei Darussalam (3rd Edition), Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017.

Hassan Sheikh Ali Nur, Muhammad, Muhammad Danial Azman and Roy Anthony Rogers, ‘Before Things Fall Apart: The Role of the Soviet Union’s Somalia’s Troubled Past (1969-1978)’, Intellectual Discourse, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2017, pp. 430-455.

Khoo Ying Hoi, 'Democratization of Access and Quality of Higher Education in Post-Conflict Timor Lester, in Christopher S. Collins and Prompilai Buasuswan (Eds). Higher Education Access in the Asia Pacific, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

Michelle Tye, Carmen Leong, Felix Tan and Khoo Ying Hooi,Social Media for Empowerment in Social Movements: The Case of Malaysia’s Grassroots ActivismCommunications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 41, 2017.

Er-Win Tan, 'In Between Angry Rivals: 2017 Prospects for Middle Powers Amidst US-China Relations’, IAFOR Journal of Arts & Humanities, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2017, pp. 7-14.


Roy Anthony Rogers, ‘The Evolution of Malaysia’s Foreign Policy and Its Relations with the Developing Countries and Islamic World’, in Centre for Malaysia Chinese Studies (Ed). The Complete Book of Malaysian Politics and Economics, Kuala Lumpur, Centre for Malaysian Chinese Studies, 2015.

K. S. Balakrishnan, ‘Malaysia’s Response to the China’s Challenge’, in Benedikt Seeman and Tonette de Jesus (Eds.).
 A Quest for Regional Solutions: Challenges & Prospects in South China Sea, Manila: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 2016, pp. 50-56.

Alan Chong and K. S. Balakrishnan,
 ‘Intellectual Iconoclasm as Modernising Foreign Policy: The Case of Mahathir and Lee Kuan YewThe Pacific Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2016, pp. 238-258.

Helena Varkkey,
Transboundary Haze and Human Security in Southeast Asia: National and Regional Perspective’Georgetown Journal of Asian Affairs, vol. 3, No. 1, 2017, pp. 42-49.

Khoo Ying Hooi,
 ‘Malaysia’s 13th General Election and the Rise of Electoral Reform Movement’Asian Politics & Policy, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 418-435.

Khoo Ying Hooi,
 ‘SDG and ASEAN Community’, in Denison Jayasooria (Ed). Sustainable Development Goals & Malaysia Society: Civil Society Perspectives. Bangi: Institute Kajian Etnik UKM, 2016.

Er-Win Tan,
 ‘Book Review – Van Jackson’s Rival Reputations: Coercion and Credibility in US-North Korea Relations’, The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2016, pp. 111-113.


Roy Anthony Rogers, ‘Political Propaganda in Its Subleties in James Bond 007 Movies’, in Mason, R., and Suchoples, J. (Eds.)
 Representation of War in Films and Novels, Oxford, Peter Lang, 2015, pp. 239-

Helena Varkkey,
 The Haze Problem in Southeast Asia: Palm Oil and Patronage, London: Routledge, 2015. 

Jorn Dosch and Jatswan S. Sidhu,
 'The European Union's Myanmar Policy: Focused or Directionless?', Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, No. 2, 2015, pp. 1- 28.

Khoo Ying Hoi, 'Domestic Protests in Southeast Asia', in Dubnick, M., Bearfield, D., and Clark, K. (Eds). Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy (3rd edition), New York, Routledge, 2015, forthcoming 

Er-Win Tan, Seung Jin Kim and Gi-Seung Kim,
 'Norman Angell and the Logic of Economic Interdependence Revisited: 1914, 2014', Asia Europe Journal, 2015.


Roy Anthony Rogers, ‘Xinjiang in the Aftermath of Tianmen: Prospects for Development and Challenges for the New Administration’, International Journal of China Studies, 2014, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 413-431.

Er-Win Tan, The US Versus the North Korea Nuclear Threat: Mitigating the Nuclear Security Dilemma, London: Routledge, 2014.

Khoo Ying Hooi, 'Mobilization Potential and Democratization Processes of the Bersih Movement in Malaysia: An Interview with Hishamuddin Rais', Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2014, pp.111-120.

Geetha Govindasamy, Park Chang Kyo and Er-Win Tan, 'Korea's Challenges in Multiculturalism Policy: A Perspective from Singapore', Asian Profile, Vol. 42, No. 6, 2014. 

Khoo Ying Hooi, 'Historical Accounts of the Human Rights Development in Malaysia from Independence to the Era of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad'Asian Profile, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2014, pp. 45-56. 

Helena Varkkey,
 'Natural Resource Extraction and Political Dependency: Malaysia as a Rentier State', in Meredith L Weiss (ed.), Handbook of Contemporary Malaysia, London: Routledge, Chapter 5. 2014. 

Khoo Ying Hooi,
 'Malaysia's Human Rights Performance: Assessment of Its First Session of Universal Periodic Review in the United Nations Human Rights Council'Cosmopolitan Civil Societies, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2014, pp. 19-37. 

Jatswan S. Sidhu, 'Reforms in Burma: By Chance or Design?'Journal of Diplomacy & Foreign Relations, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2014, pp. 19-32.

Khoo Ying Hooi, 'Electoral Reform Movement in Malaysia: Emergence, Protest and Reform'Suvannabhumi: Multi-disciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2014, pp. 81-101.


Helena Varkkey, 'Regional Cooperation, Patronage and the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution'International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law, and Economics, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2013, pp. 65-81.

Jatswan S. Sidhu and Roy Anthony Rogers, 'China's Strategic Ambitions in the Indian Ocean Region, India's Anxiety and the United States' Concerns', BUITEMS: Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol. 1, 2013.

Khoo Ying Hooi and Amin Shah Iskandar'National Citizen's Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) in the Philippines: The Rising of the Citizen Power'Asian Profile, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 361-368. 

Euston Quah and Helena Varkkey, 'The Political Economy of Transboundary Pollution: Mitigation Forest Fires and Haze in Southeast Asia', in HayashiHana Sei (ed.) The Asian Community---Its Concepts and Prospects, Tokyo: Soho Sha, pp. 323- 358, (Japanese language)

Khoo Ying Hooi, 
'The NGO-Government Relations in Malaysia: Historical Context and Contemporary Discourse'Malaysian Journal of Democracy and Election Studies, vol. 1, No. 1, 2013, pp. 76-85. 

Helena Varkkey, 'Patronage Politics and Natural Resources: A Historical Case Study of Malaysia and Singapore'Asian Profile, Vol. 41. 

Helena Varkkey,
 'Malaysian Investors in the Indonesian Oil Palm Plantation Sector: Home State Facilitation and Transboundary Haze'Asia Pacific Business Review, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp.381-401 

Helena Varkkey,
 'Patronage Politics, Plantation Fires and Transboundary Haze'Environmental Hazards, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2013, pp. 314-329. 

Helena Varkkey,
 'Oil Palm Plantations and Transboundary Haze: Patronage Networks and Land Licensing in Indonesia’s Peatlands'Wetlands, Vol. 33, 2013, pp. 679-690.


Helena Varkkey, 'Patronage Politics and Natural Resources: A Historical Case Study of Southeast Asia and Indonesia'Asian Profile, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2012, pp. 438-448.

K. S. Balakrishnan, 'ASEAN-India Strategic Partnership: New Developments in Malaysia's Relations with India', in Nirmala Devi and Subramanyan (eds.) India and Southeast Asia: Strategic Convergence in Twenty First Century, New Delhi: Manohar Publications, 2012. 

Er-Win Tan and Geetha Govindasamy,
 'From Kim Jong II to Kim Jong Un: Nuclear Impasse or Diplomatic Opportunity?'Asia Europe Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2012, pp.301-316. 

Helena Varkkey, 'Patronage Politics as a Driver of Economic Regionalisation: The Indonesian Oil Palm Sector and Transboundary Haze'Asia Pacific Viewpoint, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 313-328


K S Balakrishnan, 'Military Issues in the South China Sea: The US, China and the New Cold War'Journal of Maritime Geopolitics & Culture, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-18.

Roy Anthony Rogers, 'Human Rights in Xinjiang 1978-2007: Internationalisation of the Uyghur Dilemma and China's Reaction'Journal of International Studies, Vol.7, 2011, pp. 135-156.


Jatswan S. Sidhu,
 Historical Dictionary of Brunei Darussalam (2nd. Ed.), Lanham: Scarecrow Press/Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.

K S Balakrishnan, Malaysia-Pakistan RelationsJournal of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2010, pp.27-43


K. S. Balakrishnan, 'International Relations in Malaysia: Theories, History, Memory, Perception and Context'International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp.107-130 

Er-Win Tan'North Korea’s Rocket and Nuclear Tests, 2009: A Threatening Pyongyang or an Afraid Pyongyang?', Korea Observer, Vol.40, No.3 

Sidhu, Jatswan S. Sidhu'Malaysia's Security and Defence since 1957: An Overview', In Abdul Razak Baginda (ed.), Malaysia's Security and Defence Since 1957, Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Strategic Research Centre, 2009, pp. 1-30.

K S Balakrishnan, 'Malaysia’s Defence Policy, Military Modernisation and National Security', in Abdul Razak Baginda (ed.), Malaysia Defence and Security Since 1957, Kuala Lumpur: Malaysia Strategic research Centre. 2009, pp. 115-141

Last Updated: 30/09/2020